snmp的配置大全cisco

来源:本站原创 CISCO 超过6,148 views围观 0条评论

1 配置SNMP
在路由器上启用基本的SNMP服务
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARO ro //读权限
Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARW rw //写权限
Router(config)#end
Router#
从12.0以后启用了另一种配置方式
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#snmp-server group COOKRO v1 //创建组1使用snmp版本1
Router(config)#snmp-server user TESTRO1 COOKRO v1 //在组里创建一个用户
Router(config)#snmp-server group BOOKRO v2c //创建BOOKRO组使用snmp版本2
Router(config)#snmp-server user TESTRO2 BOOKRO v2c //在BOOKRO组创建用户使用版本2
Router(config)#end

注释 注意的是这里启用的仅仅是简单SNMP服务,只会响应SNMP的GET和SET请求,不会发送SNMP traps informs.由于SNMP V1
和V2c都是明文传输community值所以需要后续的一些安全限制。show snmp group可以用来验证
2. 通过SNMP工具获得路由器信息
注释 可以使用snmpget, snmpwalk,snmpset命令直接对MIB进行查询,建议使用Solarwinds等图形化工具,暂略。
思科MIBs信息:http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml.
3. 为SNMP访问配置一些路由器重要信息
为SNMP访问提供类似路由器位置,序列号等重要信息
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#snmp-server contact Ian Brown 416-555-2943// 联系电话
Router(config)#snmp-server location 999 Queen St. W., Toronto, Ont. //物理位置
Router(config)#snmp-server chassis-id JAX123456789 //序列号
Router(config)#end
Router#

注释 无
4.使用SNMP获得批量路由设备信息
注释 使用perl脚本来进行批量化操作,暂略
5. 使用控制列表来限制SNMP访问
使用控制列表的方式来提高SNMP访问的安全性

Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#access-list 99 permit 172.25.1.0 0.0.0.255
Router(config)#access-list 99 permit host 10.1.1.1     
Router(config)#access-list 99 deny any
Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARO ro 99 //将访问控制列表99 应用在SNMP RO权限上
Router(config)#access-list 98 permit 172.25.1.0 0.0.0.255          
Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARW rw 98 //将访问控制列表98 应用在SNMP Rw权限上

Router(config)#end
Router#
SNMP Group的方法
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#access-list 99 permit 172.25.1.0 0.0.0.255
Router(config)#access-list 99 permit host 10.1.1.1     
Router(config)#access-list 99 deny any
Router(config)#snmp-server group COOKRO v1 access 99 //将访问控制列表99应用在组cookro上
Router(config)#snmp-server user TESTRO1 COOKRO v1 
Router(config)#end
Router#
从12.3(2)T以后支持命名控制列表
Router2#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router2(config)#ip access-list standard SNMPACL      
Router2(config-std-nacl)#permit 172.25.1.0 0.0.0.255          
Router2(config-std-nacl)#permit host 10.1.1.1
Router2(config-std-nacl)#deny any
Router2(config-std-nacl)#snmp-server community ORARO1 ro SNMPACL
Router2(config)#end
Router2#

6. 记录非授权的SNMP尝试
对非授权的SNMP尝试进行日志记录

Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#access-list 99 permit 172.25.1.0 0.0.0.255
Router(config)#access-list 99 permit host 10.1.1.1
Router(config)#access-list 99 deny any log //对于不匹配访问控制列表的记录进行日志记录
Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARO ro 99
Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARW rw 99
Router(config)#end
Router#
注释
Router#show access-list 99
Standard IP access list 99
    permit 10.1.1.1 (1293 matches)
    permit 172.25.1.0, wildcard bits 0.0.0.255 (630 matches)
    deny   any log (17 matches)
Router#show logging
Syslog logging: enabled (0 messages dropped, 0 flushes, 0 overruns)
    Console logging: disabled
    Monitor logging: level debugging, 26 messages logged
        Logging to: vty2(0)
    Buffer logging: level debugging, 49 messages logged
    Trap logging: level informational, 53 message lines logged
        Logging to 172.25.1.1, 53 message lines logged
        Logging to 172.25.1.3, 53 message lines logged
Log Buffer (4096 bytes):
Apr 15 22:33:21: %SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGS: list 99 denied 192.168.22.13 1 packet
Apr 15 22:39:18: %SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGS: list 99 denied 10.121.212.11 3 packets
Router#

7.限制MIB访问
限制特定的MIB可以被SNMP来访问

Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#access-list 99 permit 172.25.1.0 0.0.0.255
Router(config)#access-list 99 deny any log
Router(config)#snmp-server view ORAVIEW mib-2 included
Router(config)#snmp-server view ORAVIEW at excluded
Router(config)#snmp-server view ORAVIEW cisco included
Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARO view ORAVIEW ro 99
Router(config)#snmp-server view RESTRICTED lsystem.55 included
Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARW view RESTRICTED rw 99
Router(config)#end
Router#
SNMP Group方式
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#snmp-server view ORAVIEW mib-2 included
Router(config)#snmp-server view ORAVIEW at excluded
Router(config)#snmp-server view ORAVIEW cisco included
Router(config)#snmp-server group TEST v1 read ORAVIEW
Router(config)#snmp-server user ORARO TEST v1
Router(config)#snmp-server view RESTRICTED lsystem.55 included
Router(config)#snmp-server group TEST2 v1 write RESTRICTED
Router(config)#snmp-server user ORARW TEST2 v1
Router(config)#end
Router#
注释
Router#show snmp view
ORAVIEW mib-2 – included nonvolatile active
ORAVIEW at – excluded nonvolatile active
ORAVIEW cisco – included nonvolatile active
v1default internet – included volatile active
v1default internet.6.3.15 – excluded volatile active
v1default internet.6.3.16 – excluded volatile active
v1default internet.6.3.18 – excluded volatile active
RESTRICTED cisco – included nonvolatile active
RESTRICTED lsystem.55 – included nonvolatile active
Router#

8.使用SNMP来修改路由器当前配置
使用SNMP来下载或者上传路由器配置文件
以安装了NETSNMP的Freebsd为例
首先路由器启用SNMP
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARW rw
Router(config)#end
下载配置
Freebsd% touch /tftpboot/router.cfg
Freebsd% chmod 666 /tftpboot/router.cfg
Freebsd% snmpset v1 -c ORARW Router .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.2.1.55.172.25.1.1 s router.cfg
enterprises.9.2.1.55.172.25.1.1 = "router.cfg"
Freebsd%
修改配置后上传保存
Freebsd% echo "no ip source-route" > /tftpboot/new.cfg
Freebsd% echo "end" >> /tftpboot/new.cfg
Freebsd% chmod 666 /tftpboot/new.cfg
Freebsd% snmpset v1 -c ORARW Router .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.2.1.53.172.25.1.1 s new.cfg
enterprises.9.2.1.53.172.25.1.1 = "new.cfg"
Freebsd% snmpset v1 -c ORARW Router .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.2.1.54.0 i 1
enterprises.9.2.1.54.0 = 1
Freebsd%

注释 .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.2.1.55是思科MIB中发送当前配置文件的OID值,172.25.1.1是TFTP服务器地址。在修改配置文件时候注
意最后要加上end命令,注意这时的OID是.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.2.1.53。最后一个snmpset命令是对上传配置进行保存。当然上述操
作都可以使用Solarwinds软件实现

 

9. 使用SNMP来升级IOS

通过SNMP来远端升级路由器IOS

首先路由器配置

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARW rw

Router(config)#end

下载当前的IOS

Freebsd% touch /tftpboot/c2600-jk9o3s-mz.122-7a.bin

Freebsd% chmod 666 /tftpboot/c2600-jk9o3s-mz.122-7a.bin

Freebsd% snmpset v1 -c ORARW Router .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.2.10.9.172.25.1.1 s c2600-jk9o3s-mz.122-7a.bin

enterprises.9.2.10.9.172.25.1.1 = "c2600-jk9o3s-mz.122-7a.bin"

Freebsd%

升级IOS

Freebsd% chmod 666 /tftpboot/c2600-jk9o3s-mz.122-7a.bin

Freebsd% snmpset v1 -c ORARW Router .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.2.10.6.0 i 1

enterprises.9.2.10.6.0 = 1

Freebsd% snmpset v1 -c ORARW Router.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.2.10.12.172.25.1.1 s c2600-jk9o3s-mz.122-7a.bin

enterprises.9.2.10.12.172.25.1.1 = "c2600-jk9o3s-mz.122-7a.bin"

Freebsd%

注释 例子中的Router是路由器的机器名也可以使用IP地址,.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.2.10.9.是相应的OID。在对IOS升级的时候第一

步做的是清除Flash,第二步才是上传IOS。这种可以使用脚本来实现IOS的集中管理。

10. 使用SNMP来进行批量的配置修改

注释 使用perl脚本来进行批量化操作,暂略

11. 避免非授权的配置修改

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#access-list 92 permit 172.25.1.1

Router(config)#access-list 92 deny any log      

Router(config)#snmp-server tftp-server-list 92 //只允许特定的设备来通过SNMP和TFTP来发送和接收配置信息

Router(config)#snmp-server community ORARW rw

Router(config)#end

Router#

从12.3(2)T开始支持命名控制列表

Router2#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router2(config)#ip access-list standard TFTPACL      

Router2(config-std-nacl)#permit 172.25.1.1

Router2(config-std-nacl)#deny any log      

Router2(config-std-nacl)#exit

Router2(config)#snmp-server tftp-server-list TFTPACL

Router2(config)#snmp-server community ORARW rw

Router2(config)#end

Router2#

注释 要注意的是这里限制的仅仅是通过SNMP发起的TFTP会话,对其他的文件传输不受影响。另外这里的控制列表是全局性的

,不能针对特定的community值

12. 保持接口表名的永久性

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server ifindex persist //即使重启也能保证SNMP使用相同的接口名

Router(config)#end

Router#

也可以对单独接口:

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#interface Serial0/0

Router(config-if)#snmp ifindex persist //重启也能保证SNMP使用相同的接口名

Router(config-if)#exit

Router(config)#end

Router#

注释 很多工程师不知道内部SNMP接口号是会变的,这样在进行查询的时候会出错,比如下面的例子,FastEthernet1/0的

ifindex是5

Freebsd% snmpwalk v1 -c ORARO Router ifDescr

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.1 = "BRI0/0"

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.2 = "Ethernet0/0"

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.3 = "BRI0/0:1"

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.4 = "BRI0/0:2"

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.5 = "FastEthernet1/0"

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.6 = "Null0"

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.7 = "Loopback0"

重启以后再查询就变成2了

Freebsd% snmpwalk v1 -c ORARO Router ifDescr

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.1 = "Ethernet0/0"

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.2 = "FastEthernet1/0"

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.3 = "Null0"

interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.4 = "Loopback0"

这样就会给网管造成困难

13. 启用SNMP Traps和Informs

配置路由器针对特定事件产生Traps或者Informs

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server enable traps //开启traps功能

Router(config)#snmp-server host 172.25.1.1 ORATRAP config entity envmon hsrp //针对特定信息进行traps

Router(config)#snmp-server host nms.oreilly.com ORATRAP bgp snmp envmon //发送特定APS

Router(config)#end

Router#

从SNMP v2c开始路由器支持SNMP Informs

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server enable informs

Router(config)#snmp-server host 172.25.1.1 informs version 2c ORATRAP snmp envmon

Router(config)#end

Router#

注释 这里的Traps是路由器主动提供的,不是针对SNMP request的响应。可以snmp-server enable traps envmon 来发送特定

的TRAPS,也可以针对不同的NMS主机发送不同的traps

14. 以SNMP Trap的形式发送Syslog

把Syslog封装成SNMP Traps或者Informs

Traps

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#logging history informational

Router(config)#snmp-server enable traps syslog

Router(config)#snmp-server host 172.25.1.1 ORATRAP syslog

Router(config)#end

Router#

Informs

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#logging history informational

Router(config)#snmp-server enable informs

Router(config)#snmp-server host 172.25.1.1 informs version 2c ORATRAP syslog

Router(config)#end

Router#

注释 Router#clear counters

Clear "show interface" counters on all interfaces [confirm]

Router#

May 28 10:07:04: %CLEAR-5-COUNTERS: Clear counter on all interfaces by ijbrown on vty0 (172.25.1.1)

上述的Syslog信息会变成下面的SNMP消息

Freebsd% tail snmptrapd.log

May 28 10:07:04 freebsd snmptrapd[77759]: 172.25.25.1: Enterprise Specific Trap (1) Uptime: 18 days,

22:35:26.99, enterprises.9.9.41.1.2.3.1.2.118 = "CLEAR", enterprises.9.9.41.1.2.3.1.3.118 = 6,

enterprises.9.9.41.1.2.3.1.4.118 = "COUNTERS", enterprises.9.9.41.1.2.3.1.5.118 = "Clear counter on all

interfaces by ijbrown on vty0 (172.25.1.1)", enterprises.9.9.41.1.2.3.1.6.118 = Timeticks: (163652698) 18

days, 22:35:26.98

Freebsd%

15. 设定SNMP包大小

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server packetsize 1480 //修改缺省的SNMP包大小

Router(config)#end

Router#

注释 缺省为1500字节

16. 设定SNMP队列大小

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server queue-length 25 //增加SNMP Trap队列大小

Router(config)#snmp-server inform pending 40

Router(config)#end

Router#

注释 缺省对Trap的队列是10个trap消息,对Inform是25个。可以通过show snmp来查看队列配置和丢弃的Trap包

17. 设定SNMP 超时时长

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server trap-timeout 60 //调整SNMP Trap的超时时长

Router(config)#snmp-server inform timeout 120

Router(config)#end

Router#

注释 准确说是重传等待时长

18.禁止端口的Up/Down Traps

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#interface Serial0/0

Router(config-if)#no snmp trap link-status //忽略特定端口的链路状态告警

Router(config-if)#exit

Router(config)#end

Router#

注释 比如特定的拨号接口等

19.设定SNMP Traps的源发送地址

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server host 172.25.1.1 ORATRAP

Router(config)#snmp-server trap-source loopback0 //设定SNMP Traps消息的源发送地址

Router(config)#end

Router#

20. 使用RMON来发送Traps

CPU超过特定阀值

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#rmon event 1 log trap ORATRAP description "CPU on Router has exceeded threshold" owner ijbrown

Router(config)#rmon event 2 log description "CPU on Router has normalized" owner ijbrown       

Router(config)#rmon alarm 1 lsystem.57.0 60 absolute rising-threshold 70 1 falling-threshold 40 2 owner

ijbrown //实现当CPU超过警戒后发送trap或者其他重要事件发送trap
Router(config)#end

Router#

内存利用超过特定阀值

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#rmon event 4 log trap ORATRAP description "Low memory condition on Router" owner ijbrown   

Router(config)#rmon event 5 log trap ORATRAP description "Low Memory condition cleared on Router" owner

ijbrown

Router(config)#rmon alarm 3 lsystem.8.0 60 absolute rising-threshold 1500000 5 falling-threshold 1000000 4

owner ijbrown

Router(config)#end

Router#

链路利用率超过固定阀值

er#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#rmon event 6 log trap ORATRAP description "Bandwidth utilization has exceeded threshold on

Router interface Serial 0/0" owner ijbrown

Router(config)#rmon event 7 log trap ORATRAP description "Bandwidth utilization has normalized on Router

interface Serial 0/0" owner ijbrown

Router(config)#! Configure inbound alarm on Serial0/0 (ifNumber 3)

Router(config)#rmon alarm 4 lifEntry.6.3 300 absolute rising-threshold 1000000 6 falling-threshold 800000 7

owner ijbrown

Router(config)#! Configure outbound alarm on Serial0/0 (ifNumber 3)

Router(config)#rmon alarm 5 lifEntry.8.3 300 absolute rising-threshold 1000000 6 falling-threshold 800000 7

owner ijbrown

Router(config)#end

Router#

注释 路由器内置了这种廉价的监控方案

Router>show rmon events

Event 1 is active, owned by ijbrown

Description is CPU on Router has exceeded threshold

Event firing causes log and trap to community ORATRAP, last fired 00:00:00

Event 2 is active, owned by ijbrown

Description is CPU on Router has normalized

Event firing causes log, last fired 2w2d

Current log entries:

      index       time   description

          1       2w2d   CPU on Router has normalized

Router>

21.启用SNMPv3

(noAuthNoPriv):

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server view TESTV3 mib-2 include

Router(config)#snmp-server group NOTSAFE v3 noauth read TESTV3

Router(config)#snmp-server user WEAK NOTSAFE v3 // 启用SNMPv3提供安全性

Router(config)#end

Router#

(authNoPriv):

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server view TESTV3 mib-2 include

Router(config)#snmp-server group ORAROV3 v3 auth read TESTV3

Router(config)#snmp-server user cking ORAROV3 v3 auth md5 daytona19y

Router(config)#end

Router#

(authPriv)

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#snmp-server view TESTV3 mib-2 include

Router(config)#snmp-server group ORAROV3 v3 auth read TESTV3

Router(config)#snmp-server user bpugsley ORAROV3 v3 auth md5 hockeyrules priv des56 shortguy

Router(config)#end

Router#

注释 v3最大的优点就是增加了安全性,有例子中三种模式可以选择

22. 高强度SNMPv3加密

从12.4(2)T开始增强了加密方法

Router1#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router1(config)#snmp-server user wbrejniak ORAROV3 v3 auth md5 authpass priv 3des privpass //
增强V3的加密

Router1(config)#end                                                                     

Router1#

或者

Router1#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router1(config)#snmp-server user wbrejniak ORAROV3 v3 auth md5 authpass priv aes 128 privpass //
增强V3的加密

Router1(config)#end

Router1#

[code]

23.配置路由器自动轮询另一台设备来获得性能统计

[code]
Router1#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router1(config)#rtr responder

Router1(config)#rtr 10

Router1(config-rtr)#type echo protocol ipIcmpEcho 10.1.2.3

Router1(config-rtr)#tag ECHO_TEST

Router1(config-rtr)#threshold 1000

Router1(config-rtr)#frequency 300

Router1(config-rtr)#exit

Router1(config)#rtr schedule 10 life 2147483647 start-time now

Router1(config)#rtr 20

Router1(config-rtr)#type jitter dest-ipaddr 10.1.2.3 dest-port 99 num-packets 100

Router1(config-rtr)#tag JITTER_TEST

Router1(config-rtr)#frequency 300

Router1(config-rtr)#exit

Router1(config)#rtr schedule 20 life 100000 start-time now ageout 3600

Router1(config)#exit

Router1#

目标路由器,用来响应SAA测试

Router2#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router2(config)#rtr responder

Router2(config)#exit

Router2#

文章出自:CCIE那点事 http://www.jdccie.com/ 版权所有。本站文章除注明出处外,皆为作者原创文章,可自由引用,但请注明来源。 禁止全文转载。
本文链接:http://www.jdccie.com/?p=1750转载请注明转自CCIE那点事
如果喜欢:点此订阅本站
下篇文章: