广域网协议设置五、ISDN

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五、ISDN

1.        综合数字业务网(ISDN)

综合数字业务网(ISDN)由数字电话和数据传输服务两部分组成,一般由电话局提供这种服务。ISDN的基本速率接口(BRI)服务提供2个B信道和1个D信道(2B+D)。BRI的B信道速率为64Kbps,用于传输用户数据。D信道的速率为16Kbps,主要传输控制信号。在北美和日本,ISDN的主速率接口(PRI)提供23个B信道和1个D信道,总速率可达1.544Mbps,其中D信道速率为64Kbps。而在欧洲、澳大利亚等国家,ISDN的PRI提供30个B信道和1个64Kbps D信道,总速率可达2.048Mbps。我国电话局所提供ISDN PRI为30B+D。

2.        基本命令

任务

命令

设置ISDN交换类型

isdn switch-type switch-type1

接口设置

interface bri 0

设置PPP封装

encapsulation ppp

设置协议地址与电话号码的映射

dialer map protocol next-hop-address [name hostname] [broadcast] [dial-string]

启动PPP多连接

ppp multilink

设置启动另一个B通道的阈值

dialer load-threshold load

显示ISDN有关信息

show isdn {active | history | memory | services | status [dsl | interface-type number] | timers}

注:1.交换机类型如下表,国内交换机一般为basic-net3。

按区域分关键字

交换机类型

Australia

basic-ts013

Australian TS013 switches

Europe

basic-1tr6

German 1TR6 ISDN switches

basic-nwnet3

Norway NET3 switches (phase 1)

basic-net3

NET3 ISDN switches (UK, Denmark, and other nations); covers the Euro-ISDN E-DSS1 signalling system

primary-net5

NET5 switches (UK and Europe)

vn2

French VN2 ISDN switches

vn3

French VN3 ISDN switches

Japan

ntt

Japanese NTT ISDN switches

primary-ntt

Japanese ISDN PRI switches

North America

basic-5ess

AT&T basic rate switches

basic-dms100

NT DMS-100 basic rate switches

basic-ni1

National ISDN-1 switches

primary-4ess

AT&T 4ESS switch type for the U.S. (ISDN PRI only)

primary-5ess

AT&T 5ESS switch type for the U.S. (ISDN PRI only)

primary-dms100

NT DMS-100 switch type for the U.S. (ISDN PRI only)

New Zealand

basic-nznet3

New Zealand Net3 switches

3.        ISDN实现DDR(dial-on-demand routing)实例:
设置如下:

Router1:

hostname router1

user router2 password cisco

!

isdn switch-type basic-net3

!

interface bri 0

ip address 192.200.10.1 255.255.255.0

encapsulation ppp

dialer map ip 192.200.10.2 name router2 572

dialer load-threshold 80

ppp multilink

dialer-group 1

ppp authentication chap

dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit

!

Router2:

hostname router2

user router1 password cisco

!

isdn switch-type basic-net3

!

interface bri 0

ip address 192.200.10.2 255.255.255.0

encapsulation ppp

dialer map ip 192.200.10.1 name router1 571

dialer load-threshold 80

ppp multilink

dialer-group 1

ppp authentication chap

dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit

!

Cisco路由器同时支持回拨功能,我们将路由器Router1作为Callback Server,Router2作为Callback Client。

与回拨相关命令:

任务

命令

映射协议地址和电话号码,并在接口上使用在全局模式下定义的PPP回拨的映射类别。

dialer map protocol address name hostname class classname dial-string

设置接口支持PPP回拨

ppp callback accept

在全局模式下为PPP回拨设置映射类别

map-class dialer classname

通过查找注册在dialer map里的主机名来决定回拨.

dialer callback-server [username]

设置接口要求PPP回拨

ppp callback request

设置如下:

Router1:

hostname router1

user router2 password cisco

!

isdn switch-type basic-net3

!

interface bri 0

ip address 192.200.10.1 255.255.255.0

encapsulation ppp

dialer map ip 192.200.10.2 name router2 class s3 572

dialer load-threshold 80

ppp callback accept

ppp multilink

dialer-group 1

ppp authentication chap

map-class dialer s3

dialer callback-server username

dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit

!

Router2:

hostname router2

user router1 password cisco

!

isdn switch-type basic-net3

!

interface bri 0

ip address 192.200.10.2 255.255.255.0

encapsulation ppp

dialer map ip 192.200.10.1 name router1 571

dialer load-threshold 80

ppp callback request

ppp multilink

dialer-group 1

ppp authentication chap

dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit

!

相关调试命令

debug dialer

debug isdn event

debug isdn q921

debug isdn q931

debug ppp authentication

debug ppp error

debug ppp negotiation

debug ppp packet

show dialer

show isdn status

举例:执行debug dialer命令观察router2呼叫router1,router1回拨router2的过程.

router1#debug dialer

router2#ping 192.200.10.1

router1#

00:03:50: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up

00:03:50: BRI0:1:PPP callback Callback server starting to router2 572

00:03:50: BRI0:1: disconnecting call

00:03:50: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to down

00:03:50: BRI0:1: disconnecting call

00:03:50: BRI0:1: disconnecting call

00:03:51: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:2, changed state to up

00:03:52: callback to router2 already started

00:03:52: BRI0:2: disconnecting call

00:03:52: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:2, changed state to down

00:03:52: BRI0:2: disconnecting call

00:03:52: BRI0:2: disconnecting call

00:04:05: : Callback timer expired

00:04:05: BRI0:beginning callback to router2 572

00:04:05: BRI0: Attempting to dial 572

00:04:05: Freeing callback to router2 572

00:04:05: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up

00:04:05: BRI0:1: No callback negotiated

00:04:05: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Virtual-Access1, changed state to up

00:04:05: dialer Protocol up for Vi1

00:04:06: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state

to up

00:04:06: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Virtual-Access1, chang

ed state to up

00:04:11: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 572

#router1

4.      ISDN访问首都在线263网实例:
本地局部网地址为10.0.0.0/24,属于保留地址,通过NAT地址翻译功能,局域网用户可以通过ISDN上263网访问Internet。263的ISDN电话号码为2633,用户为263,口令为263,所涉及的命令如下表:

任务

命令

指定接口通过PPP/IPCP地址协商获得IP地址

ip address negotiated

指定内部和外部端口

ip nat {inside | outside}

使用ppp/pap作认证

ppp authentication pap callin

指定接口属于拨号组1

dialer-group 1

定义拨号组1允许所有IP协议

dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit

设定拨号,号码为2633

dialer string 2633

设定登录263的用户名和口令

ppp pap sent-username 263 password 263

设定默认路由

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 bri 0

设定符合访问列表2的所有源地址被翻译为bri 0所拥有的地址

ip nat inside source list 2 interface bri 0 overload

设定访问列表2,允许所有协议

access-list 2 permit any

具体配置如下:

hostname Cisco2503

!

isdn switch-type basic-net3

!

ip subnet-zero

no ip domain-lookup

ip routing

!

interface Ethernet 0

ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0

ip nat inside

no shutdown

!

interface Serial 0

shutdown

no description

no ip address

!

interface Serial 1

shutdown

no description

no ip address

!

interface bri 0

ip address negotiated

ip nat outside

encapsulation ppp

ppp authentication pap callin

ppp multilink

dialer-group 1

dialer hold-queue 10

dialer string 2633

dialer idle-timeout 120

ppp pap sent-username 263 password 263

no cdp enable

no ip split-horizon

no shutdown

!

ip classless

!

! Static Routes

!

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 bri 0

!

! Access Control List 2

!

access-list 2 permit any

!

dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit

!

! Dynamic NAT

!

ip nat inside source list 2 interface bri 0 overload

snmp-server community public ro

!

line console 0

exec-timeout 0 0

!

line vty 0 4

!

end

5.        Cisco765M通过ISDN拨号上263

由于Cisco765的设置命令与我们常用的Cisco路由器的命令不同,所以以下列举了通过Cisco765上263访问Internet的具体命令行设置步骤。

>set system c765

c765> set multidestination on

c765> set switch net3

c765> set ppp multilink on

c765> cd lan

c765:LAN> set ip routing on

c765:LAN> set ip address 10.0.0.1

c765:LAN> set ip netmask 255.0.0.0

c765:LAN> set briding off

c765:LAN>cd

c765> set user remotenet

New user remotenet being created

c765:remotenet> set ip routing on

c765:remotenet> set bridging off

c765:remotenet> set ip framing none

c765:remotenet> set ppp clientname 263

c765:remotenet> set ppp password client

Enter new Password: 263

Re-Type new Password: 263

c765:remotenet> set ppp authentication out none

c765:remotenet> set ip address 0.0.0.0

c765:remotenet> set ip netmask 0.0.0.0

c765:remotenet> set ppp address negotiation local on

c765:remotenet> set ip pat on

c765:remotenet> set ip route destination 0.0.0.0/0 gateway 0.0.0.0

c765:remotenet> set number 2633

c765:remotenet> set active

命令描述如下:

任务

命令

设置路由器系统名称

set system c765

允许路由器呼叫多个目的地

set multidestination on

设置ISDN交换机类型为NET3

set switch net3

允许点到点间多条通道连接实现负载均衡

set ppp multilink on

关掉桥接

set briding off

建立用户预制文件用于设置拨号连接参数- 可以设置多个用户预制文件用于相同的物理端口对应于不同的连接。

set user remotenet

使用PPP/IPCP

set ip framing none

设置上网用户帐号

set ppp clientname 263

设置上网口令

set ppp password client

Enter new Password: 263

Re-Type new Password: 263

不用PPP/CHAP或PAP做认证

set ppp authentication out none

允许地址磋商

set ppp address negotiation local on

设置地址翻译

set ip pat on

设置默认路由

set ip route destination 0.0.0.0/0 gateway 0.0.0.0

设置ISP的电话号码

set number 2633

激活用户预制文件

set active

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